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Relational Data (Basic Theory)
Relational Data (Basic Theory)
Patrick avatar
Written by Patrick
Updated over a week ago

Understanding Relational Data

In a relational data structure, information is organized into separate tables that are related to each other. Each table represents a specific type of data, such as bikes or orders, and contains relevant information about that particular entity.

Bike Shop Example

Let's imagine you own a bike shop that sells bicycles to customers. To effectively manage your business data, you'll need to organize two key types of information: bikes and orders.

Bikes Sheet

The bikes table will store information about the bicycles you have in stock. Each row in this table represents a single bike, and each column represents a specific attribute or characteristic of that bike, such as its model, color, price, and availability.

By keeping the bike information separate from other data, such as customer details or order information, you can easily update and manage bike-related data without affecting other parts of your system. This separation ensures that your data remains organized and makes it simpler to perform tasks like updating prices or adding new bike models.

Orders Sheet

The orders table will store information about the orders placed by your customers. This table will include details like the customer name, contact information, the specific bike(s) ordered, the order date.

By having a dedicated table for orders, you create a logical separation between bike data and order data. This division allows you to efficiently track and manage orders, generate reports, calculate revenue, and analyze customer preferences without mixing up bike-related information.

Avoiding Data Duplication

Now, you might be wondering why it's crucial to avoid duplicating data across multiple tables. The reasons are as follows:

Data Consistency

When data is duplicated, it becomes challenging to keep it consistent across different tables. If you were to store bike information within the orders table, any changes made to the bike details (e.g., price update) would require modifying multiple records in the orders table. This inconsistency can lead to confusion, errors, and inaccuracies in your system.

Efficiency and Performance

Duplication increases the overall size of your data, leading to unnecessary redundancy. As your business grows, managing and updating redundant data becomes more time-consuming and resource-intensive. Additionally, querying and retrieving information from large, duplicated datasets can slow down the system's performance.


A properly structured relational data model allows you to scale your business smoothly. As you expand your bike shop and introduce new data entities (e.g., customers, suppliers, repairs), you can easily create additional tables and establish relationships between them. This scalability ensures that your system remains flexible and adaptable as your business requirements evolve.


By structuring your bike shop's data using a relational approach, with separate Google Sheets for bikes and orders, you can build a clean, efficient, and scalable system. This organization avoids data duplication, promotes consistency, enhances performance, and simplifies future growth.

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